Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 BC – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC).

Aurelia Cotta was a daughter of Rutilia and Lucius Aurelius Cotta. Her father was consul in 119 BC and her paternal grandfather of the same name was consul in 144 BC. The family of the Aurelii Cottae was prominent during the Roman Republican era. Her mother Rutilia, was a member of the gens Rutilius cognominated Rufus. They were of consular rank.

Three of her half-brothers were consuls: Gaius Aurelius Cotta in 75 BC, Marcus Aurelius Cotta in 74 BC and Lucius Aurelius Cotta in 65 BC; they were the sons of her mother, Rutilia's second marriage with her paternal uncle Marcus Aurelius Cotta.

Aurelia married a praetor Gaius Julius Caesar. Her husband died 85 BC – 84 BC. Their children were:

 Julia Caesaris Major (102 BC - 68 BC), wife of Pinarius and grandmother of Lucius Pinarius;
 Julia Caesaris Minor (101 BC – 51 BC), wife of Marcus Atius and grandmother of emperor Augustus;
 Gaius Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC), the dictator.

The historian Tacitus considers her an ideal Roman matron and thinks highly of her. Plutarch describes her as a "strict and respectable" woman. Highly intelligent, independent and renowned for her beauty and common sense, Aurelia was held in high regard throughout Rome.

Aurelia and her family were very influential in her son’s upbringing and security. Her husband, the elder Gaius Caesar, was often away, so the task of raising their son fell mostly on Aurelia's shoulders. When the younger Caesar was about 18, he was ordered by the then dictator of Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to divorce his young wife Cornelia Cinna, Cinna's daughter. Young Caesar firmly refused, and by so doing, put himself at great risk from Sulla. Aurelia became involved in the petition to save her son, defending him along with her brother Gaius Cotta.

During the Bona Dea festival, held at Caesar’s house her maid discovered Publius Clodius disguised as a woman, ostensibly in order to start or continue an affair with her second daughter-in-law Pompeia Sulla. Although Caesar himself admitted her possible innocence, he divorced her shortly after stating that his wife must be above suspicion.

After her first daughter-in-law Cornelia Cinna minor died young, Aurelia raised her young granddaughter Julia Caesaris in her stead and presided as mistress over her son's households.
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