Cartimandua (or Cartismandua; reigned from c. 43 – c. 69) was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England. She came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome. Our only knowledge of her is through the Roman historian Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain.

Her name may be a compound of the Common Celtic roots *carti- "chase, expel, send" and *mandu- "pony".

Although Cartimandua is first mentioned by Tacitus in 51 CE, her rule over the Brigantes may have already been established when the Roman emperor Claudius began the organized conquest of Britain in 43: she may have been one of the eleven "kings" who Claudius' triumphal arch says surrendered without a fight. If not, she may have come to power after a revolt of a faction of the Brigantes was defeated by Publius Ostorius Scapula in 48. Of "illustrious birth" according to Tacitus, she probably inherited her power as she appears to have ruled by right rather than through marriage. She and her husband, Venutius, are described by Tacitus as loyal to Rome and "defended by our [Roman] arms". In 51 the British resistance leader Caratacus sought sanctuary with Cartimandua after being defeated by Ostorius Scapula in Wales, but Cartimandua handed him over to the Romans in chains.

Having given Claudius the greatest exhibit of his triumph, Cartimandua was rewarded with great wealth.[5] She later divorced Venutius, replacing him with his armour-bearer, Vellocatus. In 57, although Cartimandua had seized and held his brother and other relatives hostage, Venutius made war against her and then against her Roman protectors. He built alliances outside the Brigantes, and during the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus (52–57) he staged an invasion of the kingdom. The Romans had anticipated this and sent some cohorts to defend their client queen. The fighting was inconclusive until Caesius Nasica arrived with a legion, the IX Hispana, and defeated the rebels. Cartimandua retained the throne thanks to prompt military support from Roman forces.

She was not so fortunate in 69. Taking advantage of Roman instability during the year of four emperors, Venutius staged another revolt, again with help from other nations. Cartimandua appealed for troops from the Romans, who were only able to send auxiliaries. Cartimandua was evacuated, leaving Venutius in control of a kingdom at war with Rome. After this, Cartimandua disappears from the sources.

Her life story is fictionalised in Barbara Erskine's novel Daughters of Fire.

In his moralising narratives the Annals and the Histories, Tacitus presents Cartimandua in a negative light. Although he refers to her loyalty to Rome, he invites the reader to judge her "treacherous" role in the capture of Caratacus, who had sought her protection; her "self-indulgence" her sexual impropriety in rejecting her husband in favour of a common soldier; and her "cunning strategems" in taking Venutius' relatives hostage. However, he also consistently names her as a queen (regina), the only one such known in early Roman Britain. Boudica, the only other female British leader of the period, is not described in these terms.
Show all items in this set…

Similar Styles

  • Three Hands Round Etched Decorative Tray, Pewter - Pewter
    casa.com
    Dimensions: 23" wide x 23" long/deep x 0.75" high. Material: Metal. Made in India.
  • RORY DOBNER Cat In The Hat Bone China Dinner Plate
    luisaviaroma.com
    Diameter: 27.5cm. Perfect Plates Collection. 22kt Gold plated rim and back detail. Black enameled illustration. Hand-painted. Made in the the UK.
  • Crate & Barrel Intricate Circle Small Wall Art
    crateandbarrel.com
    Resembling abstract representations of the cosmos known as mandalas, these lacy rounds are meticulously handwoven of iron wire in delicate, mesmerizing patterns. Choose from three sizes, each with its own unique pattern, or hang all three as a striking wall accent.
  • Jay Strongwater "Lucas" Crystal-Edge Frame, 5" x 7"
    horchow.com
    Hand-set Swarovski® crystals surround a frame of elegantly shaded red. From the Classics Collection. Red hand-painted enamel over golden metal. Corners set with ruby-hued crystals. Round ruby-hued crystals in beaded bezels. 6"W x 8"T; holds a 5" x 7" photograph. Handcrafted in USA. About Jay Strongwater: His jewelry collection began as modest gifts for his mother. His line soon sparkled on runways and in fashion magazines. Following this success, he turned his attention to home and then to beauty, using his trademark old-world, handcrafted techniques and Austrian crystals.
  • CB2 Win-Win Silver-Dipped Pillar Candle Holder
    cb2.com
    Rock star. Cement cylinder masters the art of glam rock. Partially dipped to expose industrial material, metallic silver base pops in refined contrast to hand-molded cement. Honed smooth to highlight naturally variegated tone and texture, cylindrical form encircles a single flicker or dry botanicals. Details and Dimensions: Win-win silver-dipped pillar candle holder. 4" Dia. X 6.75"H. Handmade. Cement dipped in metallic glaze. Holds one pillar candle, sold separately. Can be used with dry botanicals. Hand wash only. Overall Dimensions: Height: 6.75" Diameter: 4" Opening: Diameter: 2.75"
  • Lafco 'Sea & Dune - Beach House' Candle
    nordstrom.com
    The Lafco Candle is housed in a handblown glass vessel and crafted with a natural, essential oil-based fragrance. Its clean-burning soy and paraffin wax blend is formulated so that the fragrance evenly fills the room.Sea & Dune blends the scents of sea grass, sand and summer sky with the ocean.How to use: Let the wax melt all the way to the edge of the glass the first burn. Keep the candle away from drafts to burn evenly and trim the wick prior to lighting. The candle will self-extinguish with approximately 1/2" of wax remaining. Do not let the wax completely liquefy in the vessel. When the candle is nearly gone, place it in the freezer so the wax pulls away from the glass and you can easily pull it out and use the vessel for other purposes. Brand: Lafco. Style Name: Lafco 'Sea & Dune - Beach House' Candle. Style Number: 1064952. 4" height; 4" diameter; 16 oz; 90-hour burn time; By Lafco; made in the USA;
  • Jay Strongwater "Lucas" Crystal-Edge Frame
    neimanmarcus.com
    Jay Strongwater. "Lucas" Crystal-Edge Frame, 5" x 7". From the Classics Collection. Red hand-painted enamel over golden metal. Corners set with ruby-hued crystals. Round ruby-hued crystals in beaded bezels. 6"W x 8"T; holds a 5" x 7" photograph. Handcrafted in USA. About Jay Strongwater:. His jewelry collection began as modest gifts for his mother. His line soon sparkled on runways and in fashion magazines. Following this success, he turned his attention to home and then to beauty, using his trademark old-world, handcrafted techniques and Austrian crystals.
  • Inji Hanimefendi
    Similar set
  • CB2 Pikes Brushed Aluminum Vase
    cb2.com
    Rise and shine. Sleek, skyscraper silhouette sends blooms soaring at more than two feet tall. Handcrafted of brushed aluminum, refined industrial vase opens at an angle for architectural interest. Details and Dimensions: Pikes brushed aluminum vase. 4.5" Dia. X 29"H. Handcrafted vase. Brushed aluminum. Wipe with a soft cloth. Made in India. Overall Dimensions: Height: 29" Diameter: 4.5"
  • CB2 Liquid Blue Green Round Bowl
    cb2.com
    Bowled over. Quite frankly, we love this overscaled bowl empty. Bright pop of blue/green enamel reflects slick on low-slung base handmade of iron. Details and Dimensions: Liquid blue green round bowl. 18" Dia. X 2.5"H. Handmade. Exterior: Iron. Interior: Blue/green polyresin enamel. Indoor use. Wipe clean with soft, damp cloth. Made in India. Overall Dimensions: Height: 2.5" Diameter: 18"
  • Archipelago Botanicals 'Tofino' Scented Glass Jar Candle
    nordstrom.com
    Scented with a woodsy blend of cypress, Nootka and amber crystals, an artisanal soy-wax candle is hand-poured into a decorative apothecary jar. Brand: Archipelago Botanicals. Style Name: Archipelago Botanicals 'Tofino' Scented Glass Jar Candle. Style Number: 1009944. 3" diameter; 4" height; Approx; 60 hours burn time; Glass/soy wax/fragrance; By Archipelago Botanicals; made in the USA
  • KASSATEX 'Rivington' Porcelain Waste Bin
    nordstrom.com
    With its ribbed texture, matte finish and gorgeous glaze, the Rivington waste bin adds an elegant touch to any bathroom. Brand: KASSATEX. Style Name: KASSATEX 'Rivington' Porcelain Waste Bin. Style Number: 1022620. 9" height; 7 1/2" diameter; Porcelain; By KASSATEX; imported;
  • GO Home Ltd Swirly Cut Ball
    purehome.com
    On the search for an elegant decoration, the answer is clear as glass. Handblown and hand-cut, this glass ball's glittering surface will reflect light in beautiful patterns all over the room. Display on a bookcase, mantle, or as an extravagant paperweight atop your desk.  Made of glass Handblown and cut 3.5" diameter

Love this look? Get more styling ideas

Continue
×
About