Elisabeth of Saxony (born: 18 October 1552 at Wolkenstein Castle in Wolkenstein – died: 2 April 1590 in Heidelberg) was an Saxon princess from the House of Wettin by birth and by marriage Countess Palatine of Simmern.

Elisabeth was a daughter of the Elector August of Saxony (1526–1586) from his marriage to Anna (1532–1585), daughter King of the Christian III of Denmark.

She married on 4 June 1570 in Heidelberg during the Diet of Speyer with Count Palatine John Casimir of Simmern (1543–1592). August opposed the policies of John Casimir, who was a Calvinist and friendly to France. With this marriage, August hoped to woe John Casimir over to the Lutheran side. However, he did not succeed. The Catholics in Germany regarded the marriage as a provocation against the Habsburg dynasty and an attempt to form a united Protestant front.

The Calvinist Johann Casimir tried to break the religious opposition of his Lutheran wife. In October 1585, she was arrested and accused of adultery and a murder plot against her husband. Even her brother, Elector Christian I, was convinced of her guilt. She converted to Calvinism while in captivity, and died shortly afterwards.

From her marriage with John Casimir, Elizabeth had the following children:

 Unnamed son (1573)
 Marie (1576–1577)
 Elisabeth (1578–1580)
 Dorothea (1581–1631), married in 1595 Prince John George I of Anhalt-Dessau (1598–1618)
 Unnamed daughter (1584)
 Unnamed daughter (1585)
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