Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Josepha; 7 September 1683 – 14 August 1754) was an Archduchess of Austria as the daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. She would become Queen consort and regent of Portugal by her marriage to John V of Portugal. She was the Regent of Portugal from 1742 until 1750 during the illness of her spouse.
Born Maria Anna Josepha, she was a daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Maria Anna was a sister of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Through her brother Charles, she was an aunt of Maria Theresa, Austria's first queen regnant.
On 27 October 1708 she married her maternal first cousin John V of Portugal and became thus Queen consort of Portugal. She was the mother of six children:
Barbara of Portugal (4 December 1711 – August 27, 1758), married Ferdinand VI of Spain, no issue.
Pedro of Portugal (19 October 1712 – 24 October 1714) Prince of Brazil died infancy.
Joseph I of Portugal (6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777) married Mariana Victoria of Spain.
Carlos of Portugal (2 May 1716 – 30 March 1730) died unmarried.
Peter III of Portugal (5 July 1717 – 25 May 1786) married Maria I, Queen regnant of Portugal had issue.
Alexander of Portugal (24 September 1723 – 2 August 1728) died in infancy.
In 1742 Maria Anna took over power as regent after her husband suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed. When John V died on 31 July 1750 she gave up power to their eldest son Joseph I of Portugal.
She died while in residence in the Palace of Belém in 1754. After her death, she was buried in Lisbon, but her heart was brought to Vienna and buried there in the imperial crypt.